GOLD II Report

The second UCLG GOLD report, “Local Government Finance: The Challenges of the 21st Century” analyzes the architecture of fiscal decentralization in over a hundred countries.

It finds that the majority of countries, local authorities are taking on greater responsibilities in terms of public investment and the provision of basic services, but that revenue sources too often remain limited and irregular, especially for small and middle size cities.

GOLD II also identifies universal, as well as regional and country-specific financing challenges facing local governments. Some of the most common and consequential challenges include unpredictable and problematically structured transfers and grants, excessive budget controls imposed by higher-level governments, and unfunded mandates.

The report gives recommendations for national and local policy-makers and intended to strengthen the fiscal role and performance of local governments around the world.

Chapter 4. Commoning
PDF icon #01 "Participatory neighborhood improvement programs: a way par excellence to promote greater urban and territorial equity from the bottom. Zooming onto Latin-American inspirational experience", by IRDPDF icon #02 "Experiences in informal settlement upgrading: Zimbabwe & Namibia", by SDIPDF icon #03 "Slum Upgrading in Latin America", by GPR2CPDF icon #04 "Una lucha por el hábitat, la dignidad y la igualdad", by Madre Tierra, FOTIVBA, HIC PDF icon #05 "Low-income housing finance from commercial banks in Nepal", by ACHRPDF icon #06 "Developing pathways to urban sanitation equality – a case study of the simplified sewerage solution in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania", by CCIPDF icon #07 "Cities for the Right to Housing: The role of rights-inspired local action in addressing the housing crisis in the COVID-19 era", by UCLG CSIPDHRPDF icon #08 "The Community Land Trusts movement in Europe: implementing public-civic partnerships in the production of affordable housing", by FMDVPDF icon #09 "Formalising land tenure without displacement: the Community Land Trust in informal urban contexts", by urbaMonde, CoHabitat NetworkPDF icon #10 "The Right to Remain in Place", by GPR2CPDF icon #11 "Commoning for land and housing in Yangon", by ACHRPDF icon #12 "Urban commons and urban commoning: political-legal practices from Naples, Bologna, and Turin", by the University of Salerno - Department of Political Science and CommunicationPDF icon #13 "Cultural Occupations: Common Spaces. A report on the Occupation Bloc’s construction within the Municipal Secretariat of Culture in São Paulo", by São Paulo's Cultural Movement of the Peripheries, Occupations' Bloc